Netsu Sokutei, 42 (1), p. 17, (2015)



Cocrystal Formation and Thermal Behaviors in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

Interest in cocrystals in the pharmaceutical industry has increased in recent years. Although a number of studies have reported that cocrystals can form by heating a physical mixture of two components, details surrounding heat-induced cocrystal formation remain unclear. Here, we attempted to clarify the thermal behavior of a physical mixture and cocrystal formation in reference to a binary phase diagram. Physical mixtures prepared using an agate mortar were heated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Some mixtures were further analyzed using X-ray DSC and polarization microscopy. When a physical mixture consisting of two components which was capable of cocrystal formation was heated using DSC, an exothermic peak associated with cocrystal formation was detected immediately after an endothermic peak. In some combinations, several endothermic peaks were detected and associated with metastable eutectic melting, eutectic melting, and cocrystal melting. In contrast, when a physical mixture of two components which is incapable of cocrystal formation was heated using DSC, only a single endothermic peak associated with eutectic melting was detected. Using homogeneously-mixed fine particles in our study was crucial to eliciting the behavior noted in the binary phase diagrams.