One of the fundamental roles of analytical chemistry is to provide the information of chemical species distributing in solutions, where chemical equilibria of acid dissociation, dissolving of salts, complex formation, electrode reaction, etc., are considered. This extensively owes to chemical thermodynamics, however, the relationship is rarely taught in detail in the class of physical chemistry nor analytical chemistry. It will be a great loss in both fields. In this article, with beginning from the usual equilibria in analytical chemistry, its groundwork of chemical thermodynamics will be explained. First, chemical potential is introduced as the determining factor of equilibrium constant, then Gibbs energy is defined. Although this is inverted from the ordinary way of instruction, possibly more convenient for the field of analytical chemistry. Then, activity coefficient and the standard state are explained, followed by the derivation of chemical potential from the work for changing concentration of solute in solution for clarifying its physical meaning. Turning to the solvent, the solvent transfer is considered by both transfer Gibbs energy and transfer activity coefficient. Finally, electrochemical potential is outlined. They are described within the word of analytical chemistry. Hopefully, this article will help establishing the energy-based perspective on the chemical equilibria in solutions.
Keywords:analytical chemistry, chemical equilibria, Debye-Hückel, solvent transfer, electrochemical potential
Publication Date: 2019-10-15